The chief priests, scribes, elders, and Sadducees questioned Jesus about his authority and about the resurrection. Jesus responded with parables and with questions of his own, which they were unwilling to answer.
Luke 20 Outline
Religious leaders confront Jesus in the temple
Question about Jesus’ authority to teach
Parable of the wicked vine-growers
Test regarding tribute to Caesar
Sadducees question Jesus about the resurrection
Scribes questioned about David calling his son “Lord”
Warnings about outwardly appearing righteous
Denarius of Tiberius Caesar
The denarius was a dime-sized silver coin equal to one day’s wage. Rome annually imposed a poll-tax on adult males in Judea. The denarius was rendered to pay this tax.
Tiberius' profile appears on the heads-side of the denarius, surrounded by an inscription that is translated, "Augustus Tiberius, son of the Divine Augustus." The tails-side shows Tiberius seated on a throne, with the inscription "Pontif Maxim", which means "Priest most high."
Jesus on Taxes
Jews objected to paying taxes to Rome, which had occupied Judea since 64 B.C. They also objected to Caesar's blasphemous claims of divinity. The denarius at once represented the tax and Caesar's divine claims.
It's interesting to observe that Jesus asked his opponents to produce a denarius. It can be argued that since they carried and spent those coins, they assented to the benefits of Roman rule.
Obliged to God and Government
Despite their best efforts, the religious leaders could not cope with the wisdom of Jesus. He adeptly answered their question by commanding them to render what is due to Caesar, and what is due to God. They were obligated both to civil and to spiritual authorities.